all male sexual problems, will be addressed here by the andrologist.

Andrology is the speciality that deals with problems unique to men, like reproductive Health Problems and urological problems. It is the science of men. Many men across the globe suffer from problems that may cause infertility. Andrology is the branch of Science that deals with health problems related to men like  erectile dysfunction, infertility etc.

Andrology- male infertility

Male infertility refers to the situation where a man is unable to impregnate a fertile female. It accounts for 20% of causes for infertility. Normally infertility is measured by sperm count in semen of male. And a low count (<5 million/ml) of sperm causes infertility. There can be different reasons which might cause infertility in males. Obesity, long term use of alcohol and drugs, tobacco smoking etc. are some of the main reasons for decreased fertility level in males.With advancement in modern science, success rates are increasing for infertile couples to have a child.

Treatment of infertility in males

Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): ICSI refers to the situation where single sperm is made to enter cytoplasm of a mature oocyte in laboratory. This procedure is a part of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) cycle, providing an effective method in assisting fertilization in men with low sperm count.

Testicular extraction of sperm ( TESE) : If a man is completely unable to ejaculate sperms in his semen, then he has to  under go this process. Sperms can be sometimes removed manually from the testis with the help of minor surgery under local anesthesia. If Sperms are found and extracted from testis, they will be subjected to ICSI and their success rate won't be very different from IVF. Thus men with no sperm in ejaculate can have potential to be father of a child.

Risks related to treatment

Most patients who undergo these treatments will have  no major complications. There are a few to no risks involved for men, depending on the procedure adopted. While women who have adopted various methods of Artificial fertilization may have seen a  few complications like infection, damage to blood vessels and reproductive organs. OHSS is a life threatening complication that can occur during  artificial fertilization. But there is evidence that children of couples who became pregnant after IVF or ICSI showed slightly high rate of chromosomal or congenital abnormalities. These risks shall be discussed with a infertility expert. But for now couples can be assured  that these abnormalities are very rare and infertility can be treated in most of the cases.